In this paper, we propose to use a subfield of machine learning –grammatical inference– to measure linguistic complexity from a developmental point of view. We focus on relative complexity by considering a child learner in the process of first language acquisition. The relevance of grammatical inference models for measuring linguistic complexity from a developmental point of view is based on the fact that algorithms proposed in this area can be considered computational models for studying first language acquisition. Even though it will be possible to use different techniques from the field of machine learning as computational models for dealing with linguistic complexity -since in any model we have algorithms that can learn from data-, we claim that grammatical inference models offer some advantages over other tools.
In this paper, we introduce for the first time a Distributional Model for computing semantic complexity, inspired by the general principles of the Memory, Unification and Control framework(Hagoort, 2013; Hagoort, 2016). We argue that sentence comprehension is an incremental process driven by the goal of constructing a coherent representation of the event represented by the sentence. The composition cost of a sentence depends on the semantic coherence of the event being constructed and on the activation degree of the linguistic constructions. We also report the results of a first evaluation of the model on the Bicknell dataset (Bicknell et al., 2010).
We present a novel approach to the automatic assessment of text complexity based on a sliding-window technique that tracks the distribution of complexity within a text. Such distribution is captured by what we term “complexity contours” derived from a series of measurements for a given linguistic complexity measure. This approach is implemented in an automatic computational tool, CoCoGen – Complexity Contour Generator, which in its current version supports 32 indices of linguistic complexity. The goal of the paper is twofold: (1) to introduce the design of our computational tool based on a sliding-window technique and (2) to showcase this approach in the area of second language (L2) learning, i.e. more specifically, in the area of L2 writing.
This study demonstrates a weakness in how n-gram and PCFG surprisal are used to predict reading times in eye-tracking data. In particular, the information conveyed by words skipped during saccades is not usually included in the surprisal measures. This study shows that correcting the surprisal calculation improves n-gram surprisal and that upcoming n-grams affect reading times, replicating previous findings of how lexical frequencies affect reading times. In contrast, the predictivity of PCFG surprisal does not benefit from the surprisal correction despite the fact that lexical sequences skipped by saccades are processed by readers, as demonstrated by the corrected n-gram measure. These results raise questions about the formulation of information-theoretic measures of syntactic processing such as PCFG surprisal and entropy reduction when applied to reading times.
Towards grounding computational linguistic approaches to readability: Modeling reader-text interaction for easy and difficult texts
Sowmya Vajjala | Detmar Meurers | Alexander Eitel | Katharina Scheiter
Computational approaches to readability assessment are generally built and evaluated using gold standard corpora labeled by publishers or teachers rather than being grounded in observations about human performance. Considering that both the reading process and the outcome can be observed, there is an empirical wealth that could be used to ground computational analysis of text readability. This will also support explicit readability models connecting text complexity and the reader’s language proficiency to the reading process and outcomes. This paper takes a step in this direction by reporting on an experiment to study how the relation between text complexity and reader’s language proficiency affects the reading process and performance outcomes of readers after reading We modeled the reading process using three eye tracking variables: fixation count, average fixation count, and second pass reading duration. Our models for these variables explained 78.9%, 74% and 67.4% variance, respectively. Performance outcome was modeled through recall and comprehension questions, and these models explained 58.9% and 27.6% of the variance, respectively. While the online models give us a better understanding of the cognitive correlates of reading with text complexity and language proficiency, modeling of the offline measures can be particularly relevant for incorporating user aspects into readability models.
Studies on the role of memory as a predictor of reading time latencies (1) differ in their predictions about when memory effects should occur in processing and (2) have had mixed results, with strong positive effects emerging from isolated constructed stimuli and weak or even negative effects emerging from naturally-occurring stimuli. Our study addresses these concerns by comparing several implementations of prominent sentence processing theories on an exploratory corpus and evaluating the most successful of these on a confirmatory corpus, using a new self-paced reading corpus of seemingly natural narratives constructed to contain an unusually high proportion of memory-intensive constructions. We show highly significant and complementary broad-coverage latency effects both for predictors based on the Dependency Locality Theory and for predictors based on a left-corner parsing model of sentence processing. Our results indicate that memory access during sentence processing does take time, but suggest that stimuli requiring many memory access events may be necessary in order to observe the effect.
Lexical complexity plays a central role in readability, particularly for dyslexic children and poor readers because of their slow and laborious decoding and word recognition skills. Although some features to aid readability may be common to most languages (e.g., the majority of ‘easy’ words are of low frequency), we believe that lexical complexity is mainly language-specific. In this paper, we define lexical complexity for French and we present a pilot study on the effects of text simplification in dyslexic children. The participants were asked to read out loud original and manually simplified versions of a standardized French text corpus and to answer comprehension questions after reading each text. The analysis of the results shows that the simplifications performed were beneficial in terms of reading speed and they reduced the number of reading errors (mainly lexical ones) without a loss in comprehension. Although the number of participants in this study was rather small (N=10), the results are promising and contribute to the development of applications in computational linguistics.
In this paper we will be dealing with different levels of complexity in the processing of Italian, a Romance language inheriting many properties from Latin which make it an almost free word order language . The paper is concerned with syntactic complexity as measurable on the basis of the cognitive parser that incrementally builds up a syntactic representation to be used by the semantic component. The theory behind will be LFG and parsing preferences will be used to justify one choice both from a principled and a processing point of view. LFG is a transformationless theory in which there is no deep structure separate from surface syntactic structure. This is partially in accordance with constructional theories in which noncanonical structures containing non-argument functions FOCUS/TOPIC are treated as multifunctional constituents. Complexity is computed on a processing basis following suggestions made by Blache and demonstrated by Kluender and Chesi
Previous researches have shown that learning multiple representations for polysemous words can improve the performance of word embeddings on many tasks. However, this leads to another problem. Several vectors of a word may actually point to the same meaning, namely pseudo multi-sense. In this paper, we introduce the concept of pseudo multi-sense, and then propose an algorithm to detect such cases. With the consideration of the detected pseudo multi-sense cases, we try to refine the existing word embeddings to eliminate the influence of pseudo multi-sense. Moreover, we apply our algorithm on previous released multi-sense word embeddings and tested it on artificial word similarity tasks and the analogy task. The result of the experiments shows that diminishing pseudo multi-sense can improve the quality of word representations. Thus, our method is actually an efficient way to reduce linguistic complexity.
In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of statistically predictive syntactic features of complexity and the treatment of these features by humans when simplifying texts. To that end, we have used a list of the most five statistically predictive features obtained automatically and the Corpus of Basque Simplified Texts (CBST) to analyse how the syntactic phenomena in these features have been manually simplified. Our aim is to go beyond the descriptions of operations found in the corpus and relate the multidisciplinary findings to understand text complexity from different points of view. We also present some issues that can be important when analysing linguistic complexity.
Pause analysis of key-stroke logged translations is a hallmark of process based translation studies. However, an exact definition of what a cognitively effortful pause during the translation process is has not been found yet (Saldanha and O’Brien, 2013). This paper investigates the design of a key-stroke and subject dependent identification system of cognitive effort to track complexity in translation with keystroke logging (cf. also (Dragsted, 2005) (Couto-Vale, in preparation)). It is an elastic measure that takes into account idiosyncratic pause duration of translators as well as further confounds such as bi-gram frequency, letter frequency and some motor tasks involved in writing. The method is compared to a common static threshold of 1000 ms in an analysis of cognitive effort during the translation of grammatical functions from English to German. Additionally, the results are triangulated with eye tracking data for further validation. The findings show that at least for smaller sets of data a dynamic pause assessment may lead to more accurate results than a generic static pause threshold of similar duration.
Data driven approaches to readability analysis for languages other than English has been plagued by a scarcity of suitable corpora. Often, relevant corpora consist only of easy-to-read texts with no rank information or empirical readability scores, making only binary approaches, such as classification, applicable. We propose a Bayesian, latent variable, approach to get the most out of these kinds of corpora. In this paper we present results on using such a model for readability ranking. The model is evaluated on a preliminary corpus of ranked student texts with encouraging results. We also assess the model by showing that it performs readability classification on par with a state of the art classifier while at the same being transparent enough to allow more sophisticated interpretations.
Informed by research on readability and language acquisition, computational linguists have developed sophisticated tools for the analysis of linguistic complexity. While some tools are starting to become accessible on the web, there still is a disconnect between the features that can in principle be identified based on state-of-the-art computational linguistic analysis, and the analyses a second language acquisition researcher, teacher, or textbook writer can readily obtain and visualize for their own collection of texts. This short paper presents a web-based tool development that aims to meet this challenge. The Common Text Analysis Platform (CTAP) is designed to support fully configurable linguistic feature extraction for a wide range of complexity analyses. It features a user-friendly interface, modularized and reusable analysis component integration, and flexible corpus and feature management. Building on the Unstructured Information Management framework (UIMA), CTAP readily supports integration of state-of-the-art NLP and complexity feature extraction maintaining modularization and reusability. CTAP thereby aims at providing a common platform for complexity analysis, encouraging research collaboration and sharing of feature extraction components—to jointly advance the state-of-the-art in complexity analysis in a form that readily supports real-life use by ordinary users.
We bring together knowledge from two different types of language learning data, texts learners read and texts they write, to improve linguistic complexity classification in the latter. Linguistic complexity in the foreign and second language learning context can be expressed in terms of proficiency levels. We show that incorporating features capturing lexical complexity information from reading passages can boost significantly the machine learning based classification of learner-written texts into proficiency levels. With an F1 score of .8 our system rivals state-of-the-art results reported for other languages for this task. Finally, we present a freely available web-based tool for proficiency level classification and lexical complexity visualization for both learner writings and reading texts.
Arabic writing is typically underspecified for short vowels and other markups, referred to as diacritics. In addition to the lexical ambiguity exhibited in most languages, the lack of diacritics in written Arabic adds another layer of ambiguity which is an artifact of the orthography. In this paper, we present the details of three annotation experimental conditions designed to study the impact of automatic ambiguity detection, on annotation speed and quality in a large scale annotation project.
Computational linguistic approaches to sign languages could benefit from investigating how complexity influences structure. We investigate whether morphological complexity has an effect on the order of Verb (V) and Object (O) in Swedish Sign Language (SSL), on the basis of elicited data from five Deaf signers. We find a significant difference in the distribution of the orderings OV vs. VO, based on an analysis of morphological weight. While morphologically heavy verbs exhibit a general preference for OV, humanness seems to affect the ordering in the opposite direction, with [+human] Objects pushing towards a preference for VO.
Language complexity is an intriguing phenomenon argued to play an important role in both language learning and processing. The need to compare languages with regard to their complexity resulted in a multitude of approaches and methods, ranging from accounts targeting specific structural features to global quantification of variation more generally. In this paper, we investigate the degree to which morphological complexity measures are mutually correlated in a sample of more than 500 languages of 101 language families. We use human expert judgements from the World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS), and compare them to four quantitative measures automatically calculated from language corpora. These consist of three previously defined corpus-derived measures, which are all monolingual, and one new measure based on automatic word-alignment across pairs of languages. We find strong correlations between all the measures, illustrating that both expert judgements and automated approaches converge to similar complexity ratings, and can be used interchangeably.
Comparable or parallel corpora are beneficial for many NLP tasks. The automatic collection of corpora enables large-scale resources, even for less-resourced languages, which in turn can be useful for deducing rules and patterns for text rewriting algorithms, a subtask of automatic text simplification. We present two methods for the alignment of Swedish easy-to-read text segments to text segments from a reference corpus. The first method (M1) was originally developed for the task of text reuse detection, measuring sentence similarity by a modified version of a TF-IDF vector space model. A second method (M2), also accounting for part-of-speech tags, was developed, and the methods were compared. For evaluation, a crowdsourcing platform was built for human judgement data collection, and preliminary results showed that cosine similarity relates better to human ranks than the Dice coefficient. We also saw a tendency that including syntactic context to the TF-IDF vector space model is beneficial for this kind of paraphrase alignment task.
This work presents a framework for the automatic construction of large Web corpora classified by readability level. We compare different Machine Learning classifiers for the task of readability assessment focusing on Portuguese and English texts, analysing the impact of variables like the feature inventory used in the resulting corpus. In a comparison between shallow and deeper features, the former already produce F-measures of over 0.75 for Portuguese texts, but the use of additional features results in even better results, in most cases. For English, shallow features also perform well as do classic readability formulas. Comparing different classifiers for the task, logistic regression obtained, in general, the best results, but with considerable differences between the results for two and those for three-classes, especially regarding the intermediary class. Given the large scale of the resulting corpus, for evaluation we adopt the agreement between different classifiers as an indication of readability assessment certainty. As a result of this work, a large corpus for Brazilian Portuguese was built, including 1.7 million documents and about 1.6 billion tokens, already parsed and annotated with 134 different textual attributes, along with the agreement among the various classifiers.
This work investigates the application of a measure of surprisal to modeling a grammatical variation phenomenon between near-synonymous constructions. We investigate a particular variation phenomenon, word order variation in Dutch two-verb clusters, where it has been established that word order choice is affected by processing cost. Several multifactorial corpus studies of Dutch verb clusters have used other measures of processing complexity to show that this factor affects word order choice. This previous work allows us to compare the surprisal measure, which is based on constraint satisfaction theories of language modeling, to those previously used measures, which are more directly linked to empirical observations of processing complexity. Our results show that surprisal does not predict the word order choice by itself, but is a significant predictor when used in a measure of uniform information density (UID). This lends support to the view that human language processing is facilitated not so much by predictable sequences of words but more by sequences of words in which information is spread evenly.
The relative contributions of meaning and form to sentence processing remains an outstanding issue across the language sciences. We examine this issue by formalizing four incremental complexity metrics and comparing them against freely-available ROI timecourses. Syntax-related metrics based on top-down parsing and structural dependency-distance turn out to significantly improve a regression model, compared to a simpler model that formalizes only conceptual combination using a distributional vector-space model. This confirms the view of the anterior temporal lobes as combinatory engines that deal in both form (see e.g. Brennan et al., 2012; Mazoyer, 1993) and meaning (see e.g., Patterson et al., 2007). This same characterization applies to a posterior temporal region in roughly “Wernicke’s Area.”
This paper investigates the use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) errors as indicators of the second language (L2) learners’ listening difficulties and in doing so strives to overcome the shortcomings of Partial and Synchronized Caption (PSC) system. PSC is a system that generates a partial caption including difficult words detected based on high speech rate, low frequency, and specificity. To improve the choice of words in this system, and explore a better method to detect speech challenges, ASR errors were investigated as a model of the L2 listener, hypothesizing that some of these errors are similar to those of language learners’ when transcribing the videos. To investigate this hypothesis, ASR errors in transcription of several TED talks were analyzed and compared with PSC’s selected words. Both the overlapping and mismatching cases were analyzed to investigate possible improvement for the PSC system. Those ASR errors that were not detected by PSC as cases of learners’ difficulties were further analyzed and classified into four categories: homophones, minimal pairs, breached boundaries and negatives. These errors were embedded into the baseline PSC to make the enhanced version and were evaluated in an experiment with L2 learners. The results indicated that the enhanced version, which encompasses the ASR errors addresses most of the L2 learners’ difficulties and better assists them in comprehending challenging video segments as compared with the baseline.
Eye-tracking reading times have been attested to reflect cognitive processes underlying sentence comprehension. However, the use of reading times in NLP applications is an underexplored area of research. In this initial work we build an automatic system to assess sentence complexity using automatically predicted eye-tracking reading time measures and demonstrate the efficacy of these reading times for a well known NLP task, namely, readability assessment. We use a machine learning model and a set of features known to be significant predictors of reading times in order to learn per-word reading times from a corpus of English text having reading times of human readers. Subsequently, we use the model to predict reading times for novel text in the context of the aforementioned task. A model based only on reading times gave competitive results compared to the systems that use extensive syntactic features to compute linguistic complexity. Our work, to the best of our knowledge, is the first study to show that automatically predicted reading times can successfully model the difficulty of a text and can be deployed in practical text processing applications.
The article presents results of entropy rate estimation for human languages across six languages by using large, state-of-the-art corpora of up to 7.8 gigabytes. To obtain the estimates for data length tending to infinity, we use an extrapolation function given by an ansatz. Whereas some ansatzes of this kind were proposed in previous research papers, here we introduce a stretched exponential extrapolation function that has a smaller error of fit. In this way, we uncover a possibility that the entropy rates of human languages are positive but 20% smaller than previously reported.
The morphological complexity of languages differs widely and changes over time. Pathways of change are often driven by the interplay of multiple competing factors, and are hard to disentangle. We here focus on a paradigmatic scenario of language change: the reduction of morphological complexity from Latin towards the Romance languages. To establish a causal explanation for this phenomenon, we employ three lines of evidence: 1) analyses of parallel corpora to measure the complexity of words in actual language production, 2) applications of NLP tools to further tease apart the contribution of inflectional morphology to word complexity, and 3) experimental data from artificial language learning, which illustrate the learning pressures at play when morphology simplifies. These three lines of evidence converge to show that pressures associated with imperfect language learning are good candidates to causally explain the reduction in morphological complexity in the Latin-to-Romance scenario. More generally, we argue that combining corpus, computational and experimental evidence is the way forward in historical linguistics and linguistic typology.