Proceedings of the Workshop on Extra-Propositional Aspects of Meaning in Computational Linguistics (ExProM)

Eduardo Blanco, Roser Morante, Roser Saurí (Editors)

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Osaka, Japan
The COLING 2016 Organizing Committee
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Proceedings of the Workshop on Extra-Propositional Aspects of Meaning in Computational Linguistics (ExProM)
Eduardo Blanco | Roser Morante | Roser Saurí

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‘Who would have thought of that!’: A Hierarchical Topic Model for Extraction of Sarcasm-prevalent Topics and Sarcasm Detection
Aditya Joshi | Prayas Jain | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Mark Carman

Topic Models have been reported to be beneficial for aspect-based sentiment analysis. This paper reports the first topic model for sarcasm detection, to the best of our knowledge. Designed on the basis of the intuition that sarcastic tweets are likely to have a mixture of words of both sentiments as against tweets with literal sentiment (either positive or negative), our hierarchical topic model discovers sarcasm-prevalent topics and topic-level sentiment. Using a dataset of tweets labeled using hashtags, the model estimates topic-level, and sentiment-level distributions. Our evaluation shows that topics such as ‘work’, ‘gun laws’, ‘weather’ are sarcasm-prevalent topics. Our model is also able to discover the mixture of sentiment-bearing words that exist in a text of a given sentiment-related label. Finally, we apply our model to predict sarcasm in tweets. We outperform two prior work based on statistical classifiers with specific features, by around 25%.

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Detecting Uncertainty Cues in Hungarian Social Media Texts
Veronika Vincze

In this paper, we aim at identifying uncertainty cues in Hungarian social media texts. We present our machine learning based uncertainty detector which is based on a rich features set including lexical, morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse-based features, and we evaluate our system on a small set of manually annotated social media texts. We also carry out cross-domain and domain adaptation experiments using an annotated corpus of standard Hungarian texts and show that domain differences significantly affect machine learning. Furthermore, we argue that differences among uncertainty cue types may also affect the efficiency of uncertainty detection.

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Detecting Level of Belief in Chinese and Spanish
Juan Pablo Colomer | Keyu Lai | Owen Rambow

There has been extensive work on detecting the level of committed belief (also known as “factuality”) that an author is expressing towards the propositions in his or her utterances. Previous work on English has revealed that this can be done as a sequence tagging task. In this paper, we investigate the same task for Chinese and Spanish, two very different languages from English and from each other.

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Contradiction Detection for Rumorous Claims
Piroska Lendvai | Uwe Reichel

The utilization of social media material in journalistic workflows is increasing, demanding automated methods for the identification of mis- and disinformation. Since textual contradiction across social media posts can be a signal of rumorousness, we seek to model how claims in Twitter posts are being textually contradicted. We identify two different contexts in which contradiction emerges: its broader form can be observed across independently posted tweets and its more specific form in threaded conversations. We define how the two scenarios differ in terms of central elements of argumentation: claims and conversation structure. We design and evaluate models for the two scenarios uniformly as 3-way Recognizing Textual Entailment tasks in order to represent claims and conversation structure implicitly in a generic inference model, while previous studies used explicit or no representation of these properties. To address noisy text, our classifiers use simple similarity features derived from the string and part-of-speech level. Corpus statistics reveal distribution differences for these features in contradictory as opposed to non-contradictory tweet relations, and the classifiers yield state of the art performance.

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Negation and Modality in Machine Translation
Preslav Nakov

Negation and modality are two important grammatical phenomena that have attracted recent research attention as they can contribute to extra-propositional meaning aspects, among with factuality, attribution, irony and sarcasm. These aspects go beyond analysis such as semantic role labeling, and modeling them is important as a step towards a higher level of language understanding, which is needed for practical applications such as sentiment analysis. In this talk, I will go beyond English, and I will discuss how negation and modality are expressed in other languages. I will also go beyond sentiment analysis and I will present some challenges that the two phenomena pose for machine translation (MT). In particular, I will demonstrate how contemporary MT systems fail on them, and I will discuss some possible solutions.

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Problematic Cases in the Annotation of Negation in Spanish
Salud María Jiménez-Zafra | Maite Martin | L. Alfonso Ureña-López | Toni Martí | Mariona Taulé

This paper presents the main sources of disagreement found during the annotation of the Spanish SFU Review Corpus with negation (SFU ReviewSP -NEG). Negation detection is a challenge in most of the task related to NLP, so the availability of corpora annotated with this phenomenon is essential in order to advance in tasks related to this area. A thorough analysis of the problems found during the annotation could help in the study of this phenomenon.

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Building a Dictionary of Affixal Negations
Chantal van Son | Emiel van Miltenburg | Roser Morante

This paper discusses the need for a dictionary of affixal negations and regular antonyms to facilitate their automatic detection in text. Without such a dictionary, affixal negations are very difficult to detect. In addition, we show that the set of affixal negations is not homogeneous, and that different NLP tasks may require different subsets. A dictionary can store the subtypes of affixal negations, making it possible to select a certain subset or to make inferences on the basis of these subtypes. We take a first step towards creating a negation dictionary by annotating all direct antonym pairs inWordNet using an existing typology of affixal negations. By highlighting some of the issues that were encountered in this annotation experiment, we hope to provide some insights into the necessary steps of building a negation dictionary.