Proceedings of the Workshop on Generalization in the Age of Deep Learning

Yonatan Bisk, Omer Levy, Mark Yatskar (Editors)

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New Orleans, Louisiana
Association for Computational Linguistics
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Proceedings of the Workshop on Generalization in the Age of Deep Learning
Yonatan Bisk | Omer Levy | Mark Yatskar

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Towards Inference-Oriented Reading Comprehension: ParallelQA
Soumya Wadhwa | Varsha Embar | Matthias Grabmair | Eric Nyberg

In this paper, we investigate the tendency of end-to-end neural Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) models to match shallow patterns rather than perform inference-oriented reasoning on RC benchmarks. We aim to test the ability of these systems to answer questions which focus on referential inference. We propose ParallelQA, a strategy to formulate such questions using parallel passages. We also demonstrate that existing neural models fail to generalize well to this setting.

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Commonsense mining as knowledge base completion? A study on the impact of novelty
Stanislaw Jastrzębski | Dzmitry Bahdanau | Seyedarian Hosseini | Michael Noukhovitch | Yoshua Bengio | Jackie Cheung

Commonsense knowledge bases such as ConceptNet represent knowledge in the form of relational triples. Inspired by recent work by Li et al., we analyse if knowledge base completion models can be used to mine commonsense knowledge from raw text. We propose novelty of predicted triples with respect to the training set as an important factor in interpreting results. We critically analyse the difficulty of mining novel commonsense knowledge, and show that a simple baseline method that outperforms the previous state of the art on predicting more novel triples.

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Deep learning evaluation using deep linguistic processing
Alexander Kuhnle | Ann Copestake

We discuss problems with the standard approaches to evaluation for tasks like visual question answering, and argue that artificial data can be used to address these as a complement to current practice. We demonstrate that with the help of existing ‘deep’ linguistic processing technology we are able to create challenging abstract datasets, which enable us to investigate the language understanding abilities of multimodal deep learning models in detail, as compared to a single performance value on a static and monolithic dataset.

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The Fine Line between Linguistic Generalization and Failure in Seq2Seq-Attention Models
Noah Weber | Leena Shekhar | Niranjan Balasubramanian

Seq2Seq based neural architectures have become the go-to architecture to apply to sequence to sequence language tasks. Despite their excellent performance on these tasks, recent work has noted that these models typically do not fully capture the linguistic structure required to generalize beyond the dense sections of the data distribution (Ettinger et al., 2017), and as such, are likely to fail on examples from the tail end of the distribution (such as inputs that are noisy (Belinkov and Bisk, 2018), or of different length (Bentivogli et al., 2016)). In this paper we look at a model’s ability to generalize on a simple symbol rewriting task with a clearly defined structure. We find that the model’s ability to generalize this structure beyond the training distribution depends greatly on the chosen random seed, even when performance on the test set remains the same. This finding suggests that model’s ability to capture generalizable structure is highly sensitive, and more so, this sensitivity may not be apparent when evaluating the model on standard test sets.

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Extrapolation in NLP
Jeff Mitchell | Pontus Stenetorp | Pasquale Minervini | Sebastian Riedel

We argue that extrapolation to unseen data will often be easier for models that capture global structures, rather than just maximise their local fit to the training data. We show that this is true for two popular models: the Decomposable Attention Model and word2vec.